Archive for the ‘IDEASFACTORY’ Category
A virtual operating theatre could train hundreds of surgeons at once for every possible eventuality, in any operation. “There’s no point building anything where you presume there are limits,” argues David Broadbent, whose firm Cyberjenn are working with the NHS to develop just that. Nick Carson dissects their proposal.
“A mate of mine is an eye surgeon; he says surgery is a bit like plumbing – physical dexterity can be as important as intelligence,” suggests David Proud, who has since left Cyberjenn. To cut waiting lists, the NHS may try moving minor operations down the chain to allow nurses to conduct them, calling for highly-effective task-specific training.
“The government are trying to reduce cataract queues, for example, by setting up mobile surgeries. But perhaps the solution is to train more people on the NHS. Rather than having one person watch a trained surgeon perform the operation, have five hundred people performing a virtual operation.”
“We were asked to create characters to demonstrate the human body functionally, that could literally be dissected on-screen,” reveals Broadbent. “Characters that are one-hundred-percent correct in all of their bodily functions and totally interactive, so you can use a mouse and keyboard to conduct a full operation.”
“Take something simple like a cataract operation – what can go wrong? Let’s have all the scenarios, map them out; have a go,” Proud continues. “Before you actually get live on a body you’ve run it through, and can revisit it as many times as you need. In a live operating theatre you can hardly say, ‘I didn’t catch that. Can you do it again?'”
Training is not only quicker; it’s also more clearly defined. “You know exactly what they’ve all gone through,” he reasons. “Instead of an individual surgeon teaching it their way, you can have the approved way of doing it – best practice. And the graphics, the what-if scenarios, they can all be updated. You don’t just do it and leave it; it’s not like making a film – you know, tick – and then having to go back and do the whole thing again in two months’ time, when there’s something else. Maintenance is critical to make it valuable.”
If the glove fits
Dissecting a kidney with a keyboard is all very well, but in a profession where the dexterity of the surgeon can make the difference between life and death, does knowing what will happen if the scalpel slips really stop you doing it?
“The actual art of cutting, they can all do,” reasons Proud. “Sewing, fine work, that’s all there; you couldn’t simulate that properly, but initially you wouldn’t have to. This is a quick way of simulating a particular operation; it’s about exploring. What if I did this; what if I did that; what happens if bleeding starts there; or bruising occurs there; one of the stitches leaks.”
Nevertheless with human interface devices progressing at a rate of knots, a pin-point accurate simulation needn’t be out of reach if demand is there. “Virtual glove systems can easily be built into the software,” Broadbent points out. “With the technology growing side-by-side, you would be able to bring in smaller modules within a classroom environment, and then use it again in a larger training environment using virtual gloves.”
“That’s the key factor: There’s no point building anything where you presume there are limits. A client gives me the basics that they want, and then I add something. I think that’s necessary; longevity is crucial. In [military training package] America’s Army, shooting ranges are calculated using data sets collected over the last forty-odd years. When you introduce accurate data sets into surgery, the tool becomes even more invaluable – and it’ll only extend.”
Anything that uses technology for technology’s sake is purely self-serving, and Cyberjenn are not oblivious to the arguments against using CGI to train high-level professionals. “In most situations, if you put a virtual character trying to explain something in front of a bloke in his thirties with a modicum of intelligence he’ll think you’re taking the piss, to be honest,” admits Proud. “In the right place it’s a really powerful addition, but it’s foolish to say that we’ll use this technology in every possible application. It’s about finding that hotspot.”
Patronising is the last thing you can afford to be when training a future practitioner, so don’t expect a Mickey Mouse spin-off. “A little squeaky character talking to the surgeon? Forget it. Obviously it has to be someone credible describing the operation.” He stresses the importance of keeping the end-user in mind. “Why would you want a virtual character if you could have a real person? Well, one of the problems in colleges of further education is that they can’t get the resources; they can’t all go and dissect a body. There’s your application.”
Unlimited variables also allows for unlimited trial and error, and there’s no ‘undo’ option when you have a real patient under the knife. “It’s not a straightforward ‘let’s dissect a body’ scenario; the model reacts to the way you do the operation,” explains Broadbent. “If they cut in the wrong place it bleeds, or haemorrhages; they have to deal with that. What makes this technology so rich is the AI being developed alongside it.”
Strength in numbers
With high-end software so easily available, small companies and innovative individuals are raising the bar for industry heavyweights, which Broadbent argues can only be a positive thing. “Because of the widespread availability of software like 3D Max, Lightwave and Maya you can now produce broadcast-quality material yourself. You don’t need to be Pixar studios to output a half-hour film, or even a thirty-second animation, at the standard that would win you an Oscar.”
“Because small firms are constantly pushing the boundaries, it forces people like Pixar to keep bringing in new innovations,” he goes on. “I guarantee you that the techniques used in The Incredibles, you will be able to do at home by Christmas. The industry is constantly driving that way – attempting to be cutting-edge by making the technology available to smaller, up-and-coming studios and individual artists experimenting.”
“Pixar released RenderMan deliberately for that purpose. They realise that eventually their work will become stale, and they need to inject new innovation. So they make certain tools available to the general public and small businesses to develop new innovations, which they can then take up. Many businesses no longer innovate, and instead farm out to small units like Cyberjenn.”
“Bigger companies are exploiting that R&D opportunity,” concludes Proud. “If there are five companies offering a solution, they don’t care which one they take so long as it suits them, and then they make the money. They’ve got the infrastructure, the clients and the contacts – a network of people who can deliver, knitted together to suit their client base. If we can portray that we have enough people on our network to deliver what they want, then of course we’ll get a slice of the action.”
© Nick Carson 2005. First published on Channel 4’s IDEASFACTORY West Midlands
“It’s a time compression process,” asserts Zsuzsi Pek, Senior Research Fellow at the University of Warwick. “Serious games can deliver two lifetimes of experience to one person.” Nick Carson opens his mind to a rapidly evolving field that can be overlooked by games developers.
“The marketplace is a rollercoaster for a young games company; real feast and famine stuff with no stability,” Zsuzsi warns. “But serious games have a mission other than entertainment: They encourage you to learn new skills, and offer solutions to real world problems. AI technology can make things complex and random – a chaotic environment where people can get valuable experience.”
“Virtual simulations promised so much early on but never delivered, and they’ve had a stigma ever since,” observes David Broadbent of Birmingham-based developer Cyberjenn, who have recently begun to forge links with the US military. “It always aimed to immerse you fully in an environment. The concept was good but the technology wasn’t up to it: Films like Lawnmower Man suggested the end result long before it was possible.”
Cynically speaking, virtual training is an immense cost-cutting exercise. To simulate a combat scenario with any degree of accuracy can cost upwards of £250m; even the most advanced computer game will only cost a tenth of that. But, David insists, money is only one factor. “The true power of virtual simulation is that it can account for the inconceivable,” he declares. “That’s the difference. Standard training can only ever go so far; virtual training can cover every potential scenario.”
A taste of military might
March 2004 saw the first Serious Games summit at the Games Developers Conference in San Jose, and it’s clear that the industry’s biggest players have already pricked up their ears to the field’s potential. According to one speaker, it represents a form of learning “so drastically superior to every conventional educational method that it could foment a revolution in how human beings gather and interpret knowledge.”
Such enthusiasm can prove infectious. Already blossoming in the States, serious gaming looks set to throw the potential client base wide open for small developers in the UK. “The US military currently supply most of the money,” admits Zsuszi. “They’re pumping funding into traditional combat games like America’s Army, building a virtual community to teach ‘hard skills’ as part of their recruitment programme.”
Actions speak louder
Originally a small, one-off game to spark interest in a career in the armed forces, America’s Army online now includes modules in medical and peacekeeping training. And non-combat scenarios can analyse subtle behavioural signals, teaching ‘soft skills’ by demonstrating the consequences of inappropriate conduct in a given cultural environment. It’s a far cry from a gung-ho first-person shoot-em-up many might expect from an army simulation package.
Gaming software is already proving instrumental in this field. A major issue in the current climate, observes David, is educating troops in Iraq so that they don’t inadvertantly offend with gestures or inappropriate eye contact. “Certain situations can be avoided simply by knowing and respecting local customs,” he points out.
“I designed a plug-in back in 2001 based on standard text-speech technology, which recognises emotion in your voice so that your avatar will look and sound like you in the game,” he goes on. “Accordingly, other characters will react to your tone, gestures and facial expressions as well as what you say.”
Emotional content: the Holy Grail
One criticism of this form of training is the absence of sensations that can severely impair performance, such as physical exhaustion, extremes of temperature or paralysing fear. Elements of the first two could be built into the gameplaying environment, but can the comparatively detached nature of a computer game truly represent how the mind operates in a highly stressful situation?
David looks thoughtful. “The ultimate dream for any artist or photographer is to transfer emotional content into their work,” he muses. “It’s the same for game developers: the Holy Grail is to make a scenario genuinely emotional, integrating your body’s responses with the game through stress meters, heart-rate monitors and so on. It’s totally practical with development; I think we’ll see it in games soon.”
A crop of young talent
It’s not all talk: Cyberjenn are directly involved in pushing serious gaming from an early age. Challenged by Birmingham & Solihull Connexions to forge better links between education and business, they established a temporary company to be staffed by students. Hiring a studio in the Big Peg for a fortnight, they whittled the hopefuls down to twenty and set them the task of developing a demo around a set framework.
“It’s not just a standard employment scheme; it has physical outputs,” David explains. “We’re giving people practical pieces of work to promote themselves.” Rather than attempting to introduce complex industry-standard packages in two weeks, students designed characters using the user-friendly Poser for the professionals to rig properly in 3D Studio Max. Ultimately, he points out, the core modelling skills should be transferable between packages.
The project certainly paid off for 17-year-old Craig Knight. Having created an ultra-realistic army officer for the game, he was chosen by the University of Birmingham’s Prof. Bob Stone – the “Bill Gates of virtual simulation”, according to David – to be the first UK & Europe representative at the I/ITSEC training, simulation and education conference in Florida. Retaining the original student team, Cyberjenn are now looking to develop the demo into a full-scale anti-terrorism simulation.
Life’s not just a battlefield
Of course, the benefits of virtual training spread far beyond military operations. Across the pond, Bronchi the Brachiosaurus is an adventure game designed to help children cope with asthma. “Kids must help keep two dinosaurs – Bronchi and Trachi – in top form by giving them inhalers and medication as they move through the game,” says Zsuzsi. “Apparently it reduced dramatic asthma attacks by forty percent.”
Moving from healthcare to civil responsibility, the US Government developed MassBalance, in which gamers come together and make budget choices for the State of Massachusetts – facing the consequences if things go wrong. New York City also has Breakdown, where you play with services and repair the city’s infrastructure.
Ripe for the picking
This is a new marketplace, and the first evolutionary step must be to change the mindset of certain organisations. “There’s a poor perception of the industry: Games are dismissed as kids’ stuff, as well as being costly and time-consuming,” observes Zsuzsi. “The industry just isn’t moving into this space fast enough.”
Indeed statistics show that potential funding is abundant. “Currently the US invests $3bn in textbooks; $66bn in corporate training; $40bn in government training and $10bn in e-learning,” she reveals. “Unfortunately there’s no standard practice for serious gaming yet, and developers are continually re-inventing the wheel.”
Bridging a cultural void
Massive administrative bodies like the NHS will clearly speak a different cultural language from a small games developer, and it may take a while before the cogs mesh completely. “These clients aren’t interested in the entertainment value of the game; they want to talk about learning objectives and sustainability,” Zsuzsi points out. “They want a guarantee that users will retain the knowledge. This is where academics can come in: As a bridge between the games industry and the ultimate user.”
Guidance as to which organisations require assistance isn’t exactly floating around, but the regional Education & Business Partnership from Connexions may be able to help pinpoint companies with appropriate satellite departments. And it pays to keep up with specialist magazines like CGI, 3D World and online community The Edge. “Big NGOs like the UN are setting up their own serious gaming departments right now, and they need a skilled workforce,” insists Zsuzsi. “The demand is here to stay; the question is how you can tap into it.”
© Nick Carson 2004. First published on Channel 4’s IDEASFACTORY West Midlands
The backlash starts here. Activist media organisation Adbusters says the Advertising Industry has to take responsibility for the corrupting influence of brand culture on society. Nick Carson examines the subversion of ‘cool’.
“If anyone here is in advertising or marketing, kill yourself…”
Trust Bill Hicks to hit the crucifix in the spot that’s too close for comfort. There’s no escaping the ‘swoosh’ sign, those golden arches or interlocked Cs – Nike, McDonalds and Chanel. So hands up those responsible for this sorry state of affairs?
Oi you! Yes you, the Advertising Industry: don’t try and slip away. There’s no point trying to sterilise your guilty conscience. Your hands may be glossy but they’re certainly not clean. That dirty bottom dollar embedded itself right in your nails. But you can cope with that as it’s all about ‘the sell’. Money talks.
But a career in Advertising doesn’t have to be this way. In this glitzy, soundbite world of big-brand business, the price of success doesn’t necessarily mean that morality has to be sacrificed. If the industry starts taking responsibility for its actions, then a third way can be found.
Optimistic? Well nothing was achieved without hope. Without it Kalle Lasn (founder and director) wouldn’t have conceived Vancouver-based operation Adbusters in 1989. At the vanguard of the self-dubbed ‘counter-force’ to the corporate world, he advocates wriggling free of the brand-building convention and getting back to our cultural roots.
“Mind-fuck. Yeah, that’s the word they use. It’s a mind-fuck.”
A Matrix-like epiphany, halfway through a conversation about the ethics of advertising: we have no control over our lives. Multinational businesses fronted by shiny, big-name brands shape our world. They have, Kalle argues, ‘more control than civil society’.
Not so cool
One of Adbusters’ central concerns, Kalle explains, is that the culture many of us swear by is “spoon-fed to us” – filtered down from the top echelons of the multinationals as they scrabble over each other in a “quest to put a glow around brands. To create cool.”
In a world that is gradually fabricated around us, fashion and social acceptability are handed down ready-made. As Kalle opines: “Culture no longer grows from the bottom-up. We should be able to decide for ourselves what we like.”
Almost from birth, we’re told what is fashionable to eat, drink and wear – and it’s only through the ever-expanding mouthpiece of the media that this is made possible. So in a world so firmly under the control of the ‘creators of cool’, is the brand-polishing bandwagon the only way to stay afloat in the advertising industry?
Hang on to your principles
Over the last century, Advertising has sprouted from something that offered simple factual information about a product and its price into a $350 billion “worldwide juggernaut” that sets the official agenda for the population. In the industry today, Kalle insists, companies that break away from that are the true creators of cool.
“There’s more and more talk about ethics in advertising,” he explains. “There’s a new breed of small businesses in North America run by people who do things their way, as a labour of love. I believe this is the future.”
I put it to Kalle that if the ‘corporate glow’ marks the path to success, aren’t advertisers just doing their job? Surely to deny advertising its power to sell is to deny its very purpose?
“It’s the job of every human being to be proud of what they’re doing, and do it wholeheartedly,” he admits. “But visual communicators have become part of the marketing arm of corporations. It’s not the job of designers to give clients everything they want, but to try to be ethical while making the world a better place. They should have the courage and ethical guts to say no.”
Declaration of intent
For the torrent of students looking to enter the industry, it’s a choice between the well-trodden path to financial success and recognition – or something different.
When Adbusters set out their individualist principles in a design manifesto entitled First Things First in 2000, it stated: “Too much design energy is being spent to promote pointless consumerism, and too little to helping people understand an increasingly complex and fragile world.”
It created “quite a ruckus,” Kalle recalls, with many ‘old-school’ designers protesting that client satisfaction must always be top of the list of priorities.
Their argument boiled down to the scale of success: two hundred employees polishing the corporate crown are better than twenty who subvert it. But the ruckus was there, and many young design and advertising students signed up. The man behind it boils this down to ideology: “They want to join a profession that actually means something – it put the wind in the sails of many young people.”
Too ideological, or could small-scale be the face of the future?
Yes it could. Size, Kalle assures me, is not everything.
In the business of bringing corporate cool down to earth, Adbusters’ global campaigns consist of subversive parodies of top businesses’advertising strategies. With an operating budget of $2 million against a $350 billion industry, the imbalance is clear, but Kalle insists: “If you’re smart about it, culture jamming does work. At the moment we’re just nibbling at the edges, but we’ve begun to flex our muscles and are learning how to use our power.”
Depicting ‘culture jamming’ on the Adbusters’ website as a movement that will define this zeitgeist like civil rights did in the Sixties, feminism in the Seventies and environmental activism in the Eighties, Adbusters believes this strategy will alter the way we live and think:
“It will change the way information flows, the way institutions wield power, the way TV stations are run, the way the food, fashion, automobile, sports, music and culture industries set their agendas. Above all, it will change the way meaning is produced in our society.”
One of their biggest successes is Buy Nothing Day, a global boycott that has reportedly had an impact on 60 countries worldwide. A ‘support the underdog’ mentality could be at the root of the organisation’s successes against the Goliath-like world of fabricated coolness, but it must be in the minority: it cannot explain the widespread readiness to accept what we are told is cool. The power of advertising is enormous.
What marks Adbusters out from other anti-globalisation movements is that it turns the brand-building industry on its head – aiming its own rhetoric against it. The impact of graphic design is used for the opposite purpose: undermining reputations and stripping off the coolness that makes the big brands glow.
“Activism has become cool again,” Kalle informs me, reaching for that ubiquitous buzzword without a hint of irony. “And people have begun to question multinationals’ right to shape the world we live in.”
That fact that organisations such as Adbusters exist proves that things are already changing. Kalle predicts that in 5-10 years, the advertising industry will be dramatically different:
“There’s a new breed of ‘mental environmentalists’ who argue that our minds are being polluted as well as the environment. The language they use is that ‘our souls have been sucked out’; ‘we’ve been mind-fucked’. These people are the pioneers of the future. They’ve shown that there is more to advertising than a catchy slogan and a memorable logo.”
© Nick Carson 2003. First published on Channel 4’s IDEASFACTORY
Nick Broomfield believes part of his brain doesn’t function ’til he becomes obsessed with his subject, and his work often betrays a deep concern that puts the filmmaker firmly in the frame as well. Nick Carson considers a technique that has attracted much acclaim and imitation in the documentary field.
“If the filmmaker is involved and affected, and forms personal relations, it becomes a way for the audience to do the same thing. This makes subjects accessible,” Broomfield argues. Speaking on his controversial Fetishes: Mistresses and Domination at Pandora’s Box, he adds: “The more personal I made it, the more involving and more tolerable it became; maybe neutralised it in a way.”
His wide-ranging work plunges into some of America’s most complex and troubled minds in the likes of Biggie and Tupac, Kurt and Courtney and Aileen Wuornos: The Selling of a Serial Killer – a story now widely familiar after the release of Patty Jenkins’ 2003 film Monster, and Broomfield’s own post-execution follow-up, Aileen: Life and Death of a Serial Killer. With reality TV dominating prime-time schedules, 2004’s Guardian Hay Festival saw the veteran filmmaker debate whether life always produces better stories than fiction.
Truth vs. fiction
The impact of films such as Monster can only increase when the audience realise that it’s a true story, and the popularity of cinematic documentaries such as Michael Moore’s Bowling for Columbine and Fahrenheit 9/11 certainly demonstrates the public’s desire to unearth the truth about the world around us. But, Broomfield argues, real life doesn’t always speak for itself.
“There has been a bit of a panic within TV stations about the dwindling audience share, and that panic has resulted in a retreat into reality TV,” he observes. “But that market is bottoming out: audiences are sick of playing at that kind of programme. They want more answers, and now they’re going to the cinema to find those answers. TV’s following behind.”
Keep it faithful
The extent to which reality can be moulded into entertainment should vary depending on the individual case, Broomfield admits, but for intricate subjects documentaries should be faithful and not simplify the issues at hand. “Capturing the Friedmans, for example, presented the whole subject of incest in a very, very complicated way,” he says of Andrew Jarecki’s 2003 chronicle of the collapse of a comfortable suburban family. “It involved you in the plot of family: the convoluted relationships. I think it is very important that we, as a group of people, use these complexities.”
The golden rule for spotting volatile, valuable material is when the interviewee shocks the interviewer: there’s a fair chance that the viewer will react in a similar way. “If I feel that I desperately want to leave the room, I know I have put something in,” Broomfield reveals. “If I ever feel that in the editing room I want to change it, it’s very difficult always to do the right thing and stay true to the subject.”
In the public eye
A distinguishing feature of Broomfield’s style is his tendency for personal involvement: he frequently appears in front of the camera wielding his trademark sound mic, and builds up a relationship with his subjects. After keeping up correspondence with Aileen Wuornos for several years, he was subpoenaed as a witness in her final court appearance in 2002, where extracts from Selling of a Serial Killer, made a decade earlier, were shown as part of her defence. He was also granted the last interview before her death.
“Until 1988 I did a lot of films that I wasn’t in at all, which were more traditional cinema verité films. Then I started asking different questions and doing different kinds of films – much more investigations,” he recalls. “Obviously you get the structure and the style to fit the film you’re telling. I was doing a lot of subjects where people often defined themselves by what they didn’t want to talk about than what they did. And that’s when you have to roll back the parameters.”
The natural approach
One way to take the formal edge off an investigation is to portray interviewees in their familiar surroundings, which can often betray as much about an individual as what they choose to say. “When I go into people’s houses, I’m fascinated to see what they have on their walls; what they wear; how they invite you in,” Broomfield explains. “It’s how we still usually meet people, the Internet notwithstanding, and it uses people’s everyday vocabulary to tell a story. It’s when things stop, and people start fiddling around with their lenses that it’s no longer a social meeting. I want the interviews to be like conversations.”
“I think one of the most amazing things about film is that in long takes, you just see things change,” he continues. “If you’re reporting in a different medium, say, in a newspaper, you report the conclusion. But in film, you see the process of people making decisions or coming to a conclusion. No other medium has that ability: you can show things in real time.”
A journey of discovery
“I move from one interview to the next with questions I have got from the first, building a detailed and elaborate story,” Broomfield says of his technique. “The mark of a great work of fiction is the same as a documentary – that it does not work by numbers. I think it’s a more compelling way to tell a story that hasn’t got an inherent structure,” he proposes. “Biggie and Tupac, for example, is like a detective story, and a lot of its elements are disparate. Without a thought track connecting them, I don’t think the audience would follow it. The easiest thing is to use what’s there – one’s own journey, one’s own perception.”
“The thing I always ask myself at the end of all these films is, do they represent my experience of what really happened when I was making them. And do I believe what I’m putting across. I think what I’m doing is portraying the world and its substance: I’m not necessarily looking for objective truth, but trying to convey to an audience what it’s like to interact with these people, and get the truth out of them.”
© Nick Carson 2004. First published on Channel 4’s IDEASFACTORY West Midlands
Visionary ‘concept cars’ can provoke strong reactions, but truly iconic design should survive the test of time. So claims Andrew Dyson, design manager at Chrysler. Nick Carson tracked him down to find that even the dreamiest of cars start life as a humble sketch.
It’s taken decades to put the risk factor back into car design, shedding the stereotype of the box-shaped one-size-fits-all ‘world car’ of the 1970s. But classic design doesn’t happen automatically; before any stunningly rendered computerised models see the light of day you need someone with a vision, and the talent to express it. “Computer technology is only as good as the people operating it,” Dyson points out. “Ideas are generated by sketching.”
Before anything gets down on paper you need a source of inspiration, and personal pride shouldn’t get in the way: if another manufacturer does something right, there’s no shame in having a look. “We were into retro design,” he recalls: “The PT Cruiser and Prowler were inspired by the Hotrods of the past. But we’re no longer focussed on particular cars; we’re projecting our image into the future.”
Architecture is a common muse: your surroundings, Dyson believes, are pivotal to the style of car you create. Ironically, the Chrysler building – an icon of 1930s design, itself inspired by Chrysler cars – helped shape the vision of the company’s latest revelation, the Crossfire. “The art-deco style used in Detroit is expressive, using refined shapes,” Dyson enthuses. “This suits our current image: we need to be over-expressive to show we’re an American company, but on a palatable level. It must be wild, but not outlandish – in good taste, in other words – to be successful internationally.”
Artistic movements come and go but great design, he argues, should never lose its edge. “On a personal level I prefer designs that survive long-term, so that when you show them to people years down the line they still like them,” he explains. “I dislike trend-setting cars that lose their style. Iconic designs are good when they come out and remain good: I always question things that are designed purely for the sake of raising eyebrows.”
This is not to say that a car shouldn’t cause a stir: as Chrysler’s head of design Trevor Creed, also from the Midlands, has said, the worst possible response to a new car is bored indifference. “You have to be slightly shocked by something,” Dyson proposes, “otherwise when it reaches production it will not be on target.”
Hitting the right note with everyone seems an impossible challenge, but the visceral appeal of a ‘dream car’ boils down to basic aesthetics. “The way a car looks is an emotional thing. The eye is drawn to something it finds attractive and drawn away from something it doesn’t. For some, function is beautiful, hence the success of the pick-up in the US. They’re icons in their own right: cool-looking because of what they do. But the two cross-link no end: you need cars at whatever level that are still attractive to you.”
The compulsive attraction many feel towards their personal ‘dream car’ is as highly individual as a dream itself, according to Dyson. “When you dream about something, you have a vision that’s unique to you,” he explains. “With a show car it’s not always important that it works; it can still create a subjective emotional effect. All cars start as a vision, like a dream on paper: you then need to make it a reality.”
Sketchbook to showroom
Some designers use computers to develop that initial sketch, but a white screen is essentially no different from a blank sheet of paper. “You use all the resources you can get; it’s not important what method you use,” Dyson insists. “Computers are not necessarily better; but they can improve communication.”
The 2D sketch must then be translated into 3D before the final surface is rendered using high-end CAD software such as CATIA and Alias Studio. The pinpoint-accurate mathematical curves that define the vehicle’s shape are tweaked to perfection, before the real hands-on work begins on a one-fifth actual size model.
An aluminium core is built up using wood and Styrofoam, and a 50mm deep shell of clay is literally hand sculpted to achieve the desired effect. Concurrently every individual component and interior detail needs to be lab tested and adjusted accordingly, while a process known as Design Quality Assurance attempts to keep the designer’s original vision alive amongst the flood of technical considerations before it reaches the manufacturing stage.
Sense and sensibility
“Design is a creative activity, so you must have an emotional connection to it,” Dyson advises. “But it can be frustrating: you need to make designs personal and fit them to what the company is looking for. People will often mess them around, and you need to get used to it,” he warns. “Every single day you are challenged by others that your vision can’t be done in the way you want it. It’s important at this stage to make a conscious decision, and either consider alternatives or fight for what you know is the best solution.”
To be successful then, you can’t afford to become too attached to your design. “You must connect with the emotional side and step back and think logically,” is Dyson’s recommendation. “Natural talent will always shine through in creating a design and getting it chosen, but unfortunately there are talented people in the industry without the business sense to get any further.”
No cutting corners
The car design industry is fiercely competitive and to reach the top, he insists, there are no short cuts: “You will certainly need a BA at least in industrial, product or automotive design; possibly a Masters.” But while professional training is unavoidable, a fresh approach should not be stifled by years of design theory: “Too much history can inhibit your creative judgement,” he concludes.
© Nick Carson 2003. First published on Channel 4’s IDEASFACTORY West Midlands
In 1985, Joe Simpson and Simon Yates were the first to climb the west face of Siula Grande in the Peruvian Andes. Unfortunately, as immortalised in Simpson’s international bestseller Touching the Void, on the descent they had one or two hitches. Nick Carson considers how the author’s harrowing journey was translated from book to BAFTA-winning film.
“We’re probably the only two people who don’t get it,” Joe Simpson muses to a capacity crowd at the Guardian Hay Festival 2004. “It’s our car crash, so we don’t put an interpretation onto it and try to imagine what it was like. We see it with different eyes, and don’t feel like anyone else does when they see the film.”
The two climbers’ experiences in Peru have gained worldwide recognition since the publication of the book in 1998, and Joe’s four-day journey back to base camp on a shattered leg, after his partner was forced to cut the rope binding them together, far transcends the genre of mountaineering. “Eighty-five percent of readers aren’t climbers,” he points out. “It’s not about climbing; it’s about dying alone, loneliness, pain, anguish and ultimately friendship. People appropriate stories for themselves.”
Touching a nerve
It was never intended as a film, Joe is keen to point out, but how much closer could a visual medium get to dramatising his ordeal? “I was frustrated at the end of the book, as I was nowhere near articulating how bad it was,” he confesses. “I couldn’t remember the real pain, so couldn’t find the words to explain what it felt like. But then most people have never been at twenty thousand feet, so it’s like a lie, but not, if that makes sense,” he goes on. “To be honest, my fellow climbers telling me it’s authentic means more to me than the BAFTA.”
Watching his experience unfold visually for the first time had quite an impact. “I was convinced they would make a pig’s ear of it, but it was better than I ever imagined,” he reveals. “Seeing the crevasse again was quite disturbing: it didn’t feel like it did at the time, but it reminded me of it,” he explains. “I can’t actually feel the pain but I get the sense of it, one stage removed.”
Re-living the ordeal
The final cut of the film may have awakened painful memories, but the return to Siula Grande during the filming process was many times worse. “Going back to Peru made me anxious: it wasn’t a cathartic experience,” Joe admits. “When I was writing the book it became someone else’s story, but back in Peru, surrounded by cameras, it became very real again. When I got back I was told I was having Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder – seventeen years late. It was criminally irresponsible to send us out there,” he adds wryly.
Re-living his ordeal en-situ prised open a long-dormant wound that words on a page could only gloss over by comparison. “The traumatic experience was burned into my neural pathways,” he continues. “I could see the circle of mountain peaks where I thought I was going to die, and suddenly it wasn’t a story anymore. Kevin [McDonald, the director] and his cronies were little dots far away, and I genuinely felt that they would disappear and that the book, film and last seventeen years hadn’t happened: I was back there, and the neural pathways opened up again.”
Bearing the tedium
Nevertheless, Joe’s rugged spirit of adventure often didn’t gel too well with the ethos of the industry, and the torturous flashbacks were fleeting moments in an otherwise gruelling filming schedule. “For an actor, making a film is about as interesting as watching paint dry,” he groans. “They spend four-and-a-half hours fiddling with the camera for every five minutes filming.”
Despite his respect for the directorial talent he was working with, Joe remains singularly unimpressed with Kevin McDonald’s grasp of mountaineering. “He’s a London-based arty guy, who made an amazing film but still has no idea what makes climbers tick,” he admits. “He was endangering our lives at one point, because he didn’t appreciate how dangerous it was. Simon had to sort him out,” he laughs. The combination of Kevin’s artistic talent and Joe’s first-hand experience clearly made for a much more rounded result.
The international acclaim has quite genuinely hit Joe by surprise, having written the book primarily to defend his friend from a tide of criticism. “I never thought critically of Simon, in fact I’m immensely in his debt,” he explains. “People forgot that he put his life on the line for me, and only remembered the cutting of the rope.”
“If I thought a million people would read it and a film would be made I never would have written it,” Joe confesses. “I didn’t seek success or notoriety; I certainly never expected to front the film. It makes you very vulnerable, as you have no control over how you look once it goes into the editing room. To be honest, I was relieved that I didn’t look a complete prat.”
Setting the record straight
So what can the film offer that the book couldn’t? One major asset is for the benefit of those mountaineering virgins that make up the majority of the audience. “The camera pulling back over a vast mountain range gives a real sense of scale,” Joe points out. “A book can’t depict the inside of a crevasse if the reader had never seen one; it’s reliant on the imagination. The film helps non-climbers to visualise the experience.”
Another bonus, he adds, is that the psychologically realistic documentary style of Touching the Void may bring advocates of popular mountaineering blockbusters such as Cliffhanger and Vertical Limit down to earth. From the lips of a man who’s been there and back, they are absolute drivel. “You just can’t have sex at twenty thousand feet,” he concludes with a grin.
© Nick Carson 2004. First published on Channel 4’s IDEASFACTORY West Midlands
The human body has been an artistic muse for centuries, and the life drawing – or ‘nude’ – remains a staple part of any Fine Art course. With countless scrutinising eyes looking towards the front, Nick Carson asks some life models what it’s like facing the other way.
Much like a trip to the doctor with an embarrassing illness, the philosophy behind showing your naked body to a roomful of Art students is simple: they’ve seen it all before. For experienced models, the process becomes routine: a way of life. So in a country famed for its prudish attitudes in so many walks of life, is there really anything to worry about?
In the name of art…
Diana Scott, now fifty-six, first started modelling three years ago in response to an advert. “I used to be a bodybuilder,” she reveals. “I sent a photo in, and got the job.” So it takes years of toning to qualify? Not at all, but there’s no place for paranoia: the common factor is confidence. “All models have to be fine about their bodies; you’re in control,” she continues. “You wouldn’t go into it otherwise.”
“Don’t be self-conscious: they’re not looking at you, but at your body for artistic purposes,” continues Claire Dean, a third-year student at the University of Birmingham. Having modelled at the Midlands Art Centre for over a year, she found that most preconceptions were unfounded: “People are respectful; they’re not leching over you,” she adds. “It might sound a bit pretentious, but I think of it as a performance. You may only be sitting still, but at the end of the day people are paying you for your services.”
…not for sexual kicks
Coupled with any insecurity about their bodies, for male models there is that added concern of becoming aroused in public. It’s important to detach the experience from anything sexual, argues one thirty-year-old male model, with six years experience. He offers the following straightforward advice: “If there’s an attractive girl there, just don’t look at her.”
While the vast majority of classes are understanding and co-operative, there are always exceptions to the rule. “It’s not always straightforward; girls have tried to wind me up before by catching my eye and winking, trying to get a rise out of me as it were,” he recalls. “But to be honest the sheer embarrassment factor of what it would be like works as an antidote. Some people think models do it for sexual kicks but it’s simply not true.” Accordingly, models need to speak up if they feel the chosen pose is inappropriate: “Personally I’m not prepared to have a student staring straight down my crotch,” Diana asserts. “Many tutors have been models themselves, so they should be quite understanding.”
The first time
Claire describes her first session, back in February 2003, which lasted three-and-a-half-hours. “It was in this vast studio space, which felt a bit daunting, but my friend had done it there before so it felt safer. It wasn’t like taking my clothes off in some random place,” she recalls. “I had an easy pose, laid across a mattress, but I did feel the need to eye up everyone sketching to make sure there wasn’t a pervert in there. It’s definitely a bit intimidating for a first timer,” she warns.
Another model began at home, posing for his Art-student girlfriend. After he agreed to hold a small sketching session for some of her course friends, it went from there: “There are some odd back doors into it,” he admits, “but having started off with my girlfriend, where nudity was second nature, there was nothing to worry about. They’re more used to it than you are: there’s no reason to be nervy about it.” Some tips are to get some experience of art classes first, get advice from existing models if possible, and practice holding certain poses at home.
Session lengths can vary from a couple of hours to an entire day, and once you’ve cleared the nudity barrier the next step is holding the pose, avoiding the bane of all life-models: cramp. “You can’t focus on anything else: it becomes the centre of the world, then your limbs start going dead,” warns Claire.
As a Fine Art graduate herself, with experience on both sides of the canvas, Diana emphasises the importance of regular breaks. She insists models are entitled to fifteen minutes every hour, but this is not always the case: “I once had a whole day with only two breaks, and ended up falling over. It was amazing how quickly people got out of the way,” she laughs. “When you’re nude, no-one wants to catch you.”
Mind over matter
Keeping mental concentration is another challenge, and it’s generally best to avoid eye contact with anyone in the room. “It helps to focus on a spot about mid-line, so you can return to it if you start to waver,” Diana advises. “Take yourself off to another place and not think about what you’re doing.”
It seems you don’t have to be a Buddhist to work here, but it helps. Twenty-eight-year-old Edward Whale has been modelling in various locations across South Birmingham for a year, and finds his religion can prove very useful. “I’m used to just thinking for long periods,” he explains. “Some postures can be uncomfortable, but I’d give anything a go: I like the challenge of stamina; mind over matter.”
With pay averaging at £6-8 per hour, it’s not the best-paid job in the world, and most choose it as sideline for some extra cash rather than a primary source of income. “There just aren’t enough hours to do it full-time,” Diana points out. But once you’re used to it, it’s relatively easy money; plus if the work is good, there is a sense of real satisfaction. As Claire puts it, “if they come up with something flattering, I always feel privileged to be part of it.”
© Nick Carson 2004. First published on Channel 4’s IDEASFACTORY West Midlands